Wednesday, March 14, 2012


"Oh Lord...who may dwell on your holy hill?  He who walks with integrity." Psalm 15:1-2

You would not give your 5-year-old a 12-gauge shotgun or a big Harley-Davidson motorcycle.  Shotguns and motorcycles are for adults.  You need maturity to handle them.  Giving such gifts to your child would endanger them and everybody around them.  The gifts just do not fit the person.  Perhaps you are a talented individual.  God has given you some large gifts like the ability to speak well, or organize things, or create and design.  But we sabotage ourselves when our gift becomes bigger than we are.  How does this happen?  When we begin to lean on the talents God gave us and do not mature emotionally and spiritually, we ruin our chance to use those talents as God designed them.  When our character does not keep up with our talent, we learn to "wing it" through life.  We live on the surface but lack real strength underneath.  And it shows up when the crisis hits, the storm comes, or we are under pressure.  You cannot "wing it" when it comes to character building.  The greater the size of your gifts, the more you must dedicate time to developing your character.  Eugene Peterson paraphrases the Psalmist in The Message: "God, who gets invited to dinner at your place?  How do we get on your guest list?  Walk straight, act right, tell the truth.  Do not hurt your friend, do not blame your neighbor; despise the despicable.  Keep your word even when it costs you, make an honest living, never take a bribe.  You will never get blacklisted if you live like this" Psalms 15:1 - 5.  So, do you live that way?

Tuesday, March 6, 2012


What is Lassa fever?

Lassa fever is an acute blood borne disease commonly found in West Africa. This disease is named after the village in Nigeria where it was first discovered in 1969. Lassa fever is known to be endemic in Guinea (Conakry), Liberia, Sierra Leone and parts of Nigeria, but probably exists in other West African countries as well. The disease occurs more often in the dry season, rather than in the rainy season.  There have been reports of over 40 deaths in 12 states of Nigeria within the last year alone.

Mode of infection
 A person can become infected by eating food contaminated with rat excreta, urine or saliva deposited on surfaces such as floors, beds, household utensils or in food and water e.g. surfaces of canned drinks/foods and other stored food items. Person to person infection also occurs through direct contact or inhalation of infected body fluids including blood, urine, saliva, throat secretion, etc. This is the reason why health care workers are also at a high risk of infection.

Signs and symptoms
The onset of the disease is usually gradual, starting with a fever, general weakness, and malaise.
After a few days, headache, sore throat, muscle pain, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cough, and abdominal pain may follow.
Severe cases may progress to show facial swelling, fluid in the lungs, bleeding from the mouth, nose, vagina or gastrointestinal tract, and low blood pressure.
Seizures, tremor, disorientation, and coma may be seen in the late stages.
Deafness occurs in 25% of patients of whom half recover some function after 1-3 months.
Transient hair loss and gait disturbance may occur during recovery.

Animal reservoir
Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease, meaning that humans become infected from contact with infected animals. The animal reservoir, or host, of Lassa virus is a rodent of the genus Mastomys, commonly known as the “multimammate rat.” This rat can be difficult to identify. Mastomys infected with Lassa virus do not become ill, but they can shed the virus in their saliva and excreta (urine and faeces).

Who is at risk?
Lassa fever occurs in all age groups and in both men and women. Persons at greatest risk are those living in rural areas where these rats are usually found, especially in areas of poor sanitation or crowded living conditions. Health care workers are at risk if proper barrier nursing and infection control practices are not maintained.

How is Lassa fever transmitted?
Humans usually become infected with Lassa virus from exposure to excreta of infected rats. Both direct exposure, (touching the excreta) and Lassa virus may also be spread between humans through direct contact with the blood, urine, faeces, or other bodily secretions of a person with Lassa fever. There is no epidemiological evidence supporting airborne spread between humans. Person-to-person transmission occurs in both community and health care settings, where the virus may be spread by contaminated medical equipment, such as re-used needles. Sexual transmission of Lassa virus has been reported.

Because the symptoms of Lassa fever are so varied and non-specific, clinical diagnosis is often difficult, especially early in the course of the disease. Lassa fever is difficult to distinguish from many other diseases which cause fever, including malaria, shigellosis, typhoid fever, yellow fever and other viral blood borne fevers.
Definitive diagnosis requires testing that is available only in highly specialized laboratories. Laboratory specimens may be hazardous and must be handled with extreme care. Lassa fever is diagnosed by detection of Lassa antigen, anti-Lassa antibodies, or virus isolation techniques.

Treatment and prophylaxis
The antiviral drug ribavirin is effective treatment for Lassa fever if given early on in the course of clinical illness.

Effective preventive measures include:
·         Storing grain and other foodstuffs in rodent-proof containers,
·         Disposing of garbage far from the home,
·         Maintaining clean households
·         Washing the surfaces of canned foods and drinks before consumption of content.
·         Rinsing and cooking all foods thoroughly.
·         Regular fumigation of our homes and offices.
·         Keeping cats.
Because these rats are so abundant in endemic areas, it is not possible to completely eliminate them from the environment.

Dr. Olukayode Williams